Question time #44 Answer !

The offending item shown in the initial Question time #44 was a close up of the flap actuator on this Sigma 4 ZK-JRC2 c/n 09. The item is said to be sourced from the tail rotor of a large Soviet helicopter. Another bit of useful information is that the pitot tube is said to be from a Mig 29 and as for the nut holding the nose wheel on - Well !
Another usless aside. The black object between the side of the drivers seat and the side wall is a fold out throttle that hinges forward to lock into place, converting this into a real aeroplane with left hand on throttle and right hand on stick.

Some seldom seens, seen today.

Mike Flemming's Phoenix Luton LA-4A Minor ZK-CLL was exposed today having had its Lycoming 145 engine run. It is very close to getting airworthy again. Seen here tucked away in the back of Mike's hangar where he also stores his Minicab ZK-DMM. This Luton Minor was a project started back in the early 60's but abandoned until taken up by Kip Netherclift (perhaps better known for his Aeronca 100 ZK-AMW2 ). It initially had a JAP J99 engine, & flew in 1974, but this engine was replaced with a 2 cylinder 60hp Franklin and more recently had the Lycoming fitted. Interestingly it has also been owned by Mike Kindon.
Nieuport 17 (Graham Lee design) ZK-RFC2 was spied in the corner of ZK-LIW's hangar.
Built by Mike Kindon this 7/8 th scale was first registered on 14-05-2002. Power is provided by a 1800cc Great Plains VW. Mike sold it in 2004 to the Le Margel Family Trust, who in turn sold it on to Richard Moore from 15-08-2008.
Also owned by Richard Moore is this Quad City Challenger 11 ZK-LIW. This has been around since first registered on 22-08-1990 to the Charlie Two Syndicate (Curtiss &Wilson). It spent a couple of years with Mike Kindon (of the Nieuport 17 above) and a couple of other owners before Richard listed it on 22-08-2005. It was having engine runs today -readying it for its annual.
At Heli Maintenance at Christchurch Airport this afternoon was this Robinson R22 Beta 11 ZK-IJL c/n 3901. It was imported by John Levy when he moved over from the US and registered it here on 20-03-2006. He has had it since new and previously flew it as N74558 from August 2005. It is based I believe in the Kaikoura area.

Crosswind After-Landing Roll

Particularly during the after-landing roll, special attention must be given to maintaining directional control by the use of rudder or nosewheel steering, while keeping the upwind wing from rising by the use of aileron.

When an airplane is airborne, it moves with the air mass in which it is flying regardless of the airplane's heading and speed. When an airplane is on the ground, it is unable to move with the air mass (crosswind) because of the resistance created by ground friction on the wheels.

Characteristically, an airplane has a greater profile or side area, behind the main landing gear than forward of it does. With the main wheels acting as a pivot point and the greater surface area exposed to the crosswind behind that pivot point, the airplane will tend to turn or weathervane into the wind.

Wind acting on an airplane during crosswind landings is the result of two factors. One is the natural wind, which acts in the direction the air mass is traveling, while the other is induced by the movement of the airplane and acts parallel to the direction of movement. Consequently, a crosswind has a headwind component acting along the airplane's ground track and a crosswind component acting 90° to its track. The resultant or relative wind is somewhere between the two components. As the airplane's forward speed decreases during the after-landing roll, the headwind component decreases and the relative wind has more of a crosswind component. The
greater the crosswind component, the more difficult it is to prevent weathervaning.

Retaining control on the ground is a critical part of the after-landing roll, because of the weathervaning effect of the wind on the airplane. Additionally, tire side load from runway contact while drifting frequently generates roll-overs in tricycle geared airplanes. The basic factors involved are cornering angle and side load.

Cornering angle is the angular difference between the heading of a tire and its path. Whenever a load bearing tire's path and heading diverge, a side load is created. It is accompanied by tire distortion. Although side load differs in varying tires and air pressures, it is completely independent of speed, and through a considerable range, is directional proportional to the cornering angle and the weight supported by the tire. As little as 10° of cornering angle will create a side load equal to half the supported weight; after 20° the side load does not increase with increasing cornering angle. For each high-wing, tricycle geared airplane, there is a cornering angle at which roll-over is inevitable. The roll-over axis being the line linking the nose and main wheels. At lesser angles, the roll-over may be avoided by use of ailerons, rudder, or steerable nosewheel but not brakes.

While the airplane is decelerating during the after-landing roll, more and more aileron is applied to keep the upwind wing from rising. Since the airplane is slowing down, there is less airflow around the ailerons and they become less effective. At the same time, the relative wind is becoming more of a crosswind and exerting a greater lifting force on the upwind wing. When the airplane is coming to a stop, the aileron control must be held fully toward the wind.

Criminal charges against MAT

MAT's final chapter
The Macedonian aviation authorities will file criminal charges against the management of MAT days after it grounded the carrier’s sole remaining aircraft, therefore putting the airline out of service. The aviation authorities have accused the Macedonian national carrier of selling tickets for flights despite the fact that they cannot be performed because MAT no longer has their Boeing B737-500. This applies to tickets that were sold after the aircraft was ceased. The authorities explain that because the other means of transportation were, and will not be, provided for passengers with MAT tickets, criminal charges will filed. MAT Macedonian Airlines’, only aircraft, the Boeing 737, has been grounded due to safety concerns according to the Macedonian Agency for Civil Aviation (ACV). ACV will initiate both misdemeanour and criminal proceedings against the Chairman of the Management Board of MAT Zlatko Petrovski, as well as the director of the company Gjorgji Cackirov and inform the Macedonian Government of the matter. MAT is owned by Živko Gruevski (48.43% of shares) and Zlatko Petrovski (48.43% of shares) while the remaining 3.14% of shares are owned by minor shareholders.

Currently there is no resumption of services on behalf of MAT in sight. This leaves 180 employees in doubt of their position within the carrier. With MAT grounded, Serbia’s Jat Airways has now become the largest carrier operating out of Macedonia with a total of 11 weekly flights, which will be increased to 13, starting June 1.

Going going; Indian Peaks ; Gone

These eight pics were taken in the Indian Peaks hangar at Palmerston North on 18-02-2009 just as another container was about to be loaded. (At least two already gone).
Above is 315B Lama , c/n 2528 , XC-CIP. According to the FAA this is N9000R with Pacific Aeromotive Corp of Erie, Colorado and was cancelled on 29-05-2003 as sold to NZ.
Unidentified SA315 above.
Lama H-66 , c/n 2499 , still in the military markings of Argentinia.
An unknown Robinson R44 - no visible markings or manufactures plate.
315B Lama. Just guessing at being ZK-IPD c/n 2561.
C/n 2561 was previouslly XC-CUY and N91432..
Cessna 182 fuselage in jig; partially rebuilt. Possibly N52906 which is a C182P c/n 62942 listed to Steve & Edythe Mader of Pullman, Washington.
N22oSH as a SA315B Lama , c/n 2466 , built 1976 and listed with Skydance Northwestern Inc of Minden, Nevada. It was involved in an incident during a long line lift on 02-09-2005 at Duchesne, Utah. At the time it has about 19,650 airframe hours..
ZK-IPB is 269c-1 , c/n 0228 , ex N1831A. It was damaged in a training accident atTitusville, Florida on 12-07-2006. Rebuild was completed at Palmerston North & it became ZK-IPB to Indian Peaks on 10-07-2008. It remained unsold in NZ so has gone offshore with all the other containers of bit and pieces.
Also on site were several more bent 315 airframes and a Hughes 369 fuselage pod under restoration. In my note book against this H369 I have the letters HJO ! [Surely not ZK-HJO ?].
The small registration block of ZK-IPA to ZK-IPE were allocated to Indian Peaks Aeromotive:-
ZK-IPA Schweizer 269C c/n S1812 ex N1281R. Registered 30-04-2008 and listed to River Heights Farm Ltd of Turangi on 24-05-08.
ZK-IPB Schweizer 269C-1 c/n 0228 ex N1831A. Reg 10-07-08 but remained unsold so exported. Rebuild noted nearly complete in August 208.
ZK-IPC Schweizer 269C-1 c/n 0065 ex N897TH. Reg 10-07-08. Noted under rebuild August 2008.
ZK-IPD Sud 315B Lama c/n 2561 ex XC-CUY and N9143R. Reg 30-04-08.
ZK-IPE Schweizer 269C c/n S1422 ex N891CP. Reg 15-04-08.
ZK-IPB, ZK-IPC, ZK-IPD and ZK-IPE all de-registered on 29-04-2009 as exported.
Can anybody out there add more details on this collection please.
(Come in Greybeard).

.......But soon to depart

Kittyhawk ZK-VWC has continued its test flight programme prior to its departure for Canada. 25Apr saw it fly with a drop tank installed and subsequently removed, then the aircraft entered the paint shop for the tricky job of painting on the roundels. Its flight 29Apr was delayed whilst this work was completed along with some mechanical issues and is photographed here just prior to sunset arriving back at Ardmore in company with Harvard ZK-TVI/NZ1057. The Harvard, flown by owner Liz Needham, flew as camera ship for Gavin Conroy.

Colin Hunter photos
ZK-VWC is set to have its wings removed either today or tomorrow (01May) and then be transported to Whenuapai via road to then be uplifted by a military transport aircraft and flown to Ottawa.

Recent addition............

As Blue Bus details departures, I can happily show a recent addition to the register with this smart Eurocopter AS350 B3 ZK-IKJ snapped alighting at Ardmore 29Apr. Registered to Treetop Aviation, Papakura, it obviously lives on a private property somewhere in the area and not at Ardmore.

Crosswind Touchdown

If the crab method of drift correction has been used throughout the final approach and roundout, the crab must be removed the instant before touchdown by applying rudder to align the airplane's longitudinal axis with its direction of movement. This requires timely and accurate action. Failure to accomplish this will result in severe side loads being imposed on the landing gear.

If the wing-low method is used, the crosswind correction (aileron into the wind and opposite rudder) should be maintained throughout the roundout, and the touchdown made on the upwind main wheel.
During gusty or high wind conditions, prompt adjustments must be made in the crosswind correction to assure that the airplane does not drift as the airplane touches down.
As the forward momentum decreases after initial contact, the weight of the airplane will cause the downwind main wheel to gradually settle onto the runway.

In those airplanes having nosewheel steering interconnected with the rudder, the nosewheel may not be aligned with the runway as the wheels touch down because opposite rudder is being held in the crosswind correction. To prevent swerving in the direction the nosewheel is offset, the corrective rudder pressure must be promptly relaxed just as the nosewheel touches down.

Boeing 737-8FE ZK-PBL gone

Getting a bit out of my immediate sphere of interest, however Boeing 737-8FE ZK-PBL , c/n 36605 , was registered here, and I do (for some reason) have a photo of it, so. Built as B737 line number 2710 and pencilled in to become VH-VUQ, it in fact went direct to ZK-PBL for Pacific Blue Airlines (NZ) Ltd of Christchurch on 28-08-2008. It departed Boeing Field and ferried into Christchurch on 29-08-08 named as "Canterbury Belle". Its first commercial service was from Christchurch to Brisbane on 02-09-08. Its NZ registration was cancelled on 02-04-2009 when it transferred to the Australian register, finally taking up the VH-VUQ marks the following day. It is registered to BOC Aviation (USA) of Reno, Nevada and operated by Virgin Blue Airlines Pty of Spring Hill, Queensland.

Charter wars - continued

Sky Airlines awaiting license for Serbia flights
The officials at Serbia’s Jat Airways have responded to local media which have been writing that the national carrier has been restricting access to foreign charter carrier to commence operations to Belgrade and Niš. Radoslav Stanković, the president of YUTA (the Serbian Travel Agents Association) says that Jat has no authority on choosing which airlines are allowed to operate to Serbia and that the national carrier is being blackmailed. On June 1, 2009 Jat’s charter operations license to Turkey and Egypt are expiring and the officials from those countries are announcing that they won’t extend the licenses until their charter carriers are allowed to fly to Serbia. Stanković says that “It is unbelievable that they are asking us to transport thousands of tourists to their countries and that we are being blackmailed at the same time. I can’t understand how the Turkish and Egyptian authorities are deciding whose aircraft will transport us to their countries this summer. This has never been seen before. This means that they want us to send our tourists exclusively via their airlines. No country in the world would agree to this”.

However, Stamenković says that the charter carriers from these countries are not to blame rather that it is “individual interests”. “The Government of Serbia sent a letter earlier this year to travel agents in the country stating that during the summer seasons the same rules will apply as last year, which means that foreign charter carriers will not transport Serbian tourists. Upon this order 97% of travel agencies made an agreement with Jat Airways for summer charters. However, 1 tourist agent made an agreement with foreign carriers, even though this is illegal. This is how the problem began”, explains YUTA’s director. He did not wish to name which tour operator is in question. Serbian passengers do not care with which carrier they will travel to their summer vacation since ticket prices are all included in their holiday packages. Stamenković says that if the government does not care for Jat to make 25 million Euros, like it did last year thanks to charter traffic, then it should clearly announce this.

No matter of the outcome of Jat’s charter operations to Egypt and Turkey this summer, all of Jat’s scheduled services to Istanbul are not affected by this decision as charter licenses are spate from regular licensed flights. In a study conducted during February and March this summer Serbs have chosen Greece as their number one holiday destination followed by Bulgaria, Turkey and Egypt.

Dornier 228-202 ZK-VIR gone.

This Andy Heap photo shows the Dornier 228-202 ZK-VIR , c/n 8100 , in its intended element.
Above is the white heron tail art of this aircraft.
Built as D-COHC in 1986 it worked in the US for about seven years as N228DA and N275MC until becoming P2-MBO with Milne Bay Air. A period of storage with Dornier then to C-FEQZ from mid 2005. As such it ferried from Oberpfaffenhofen through points various to reach Christchurch on 02-02-2006 and to its Haupiri hideaway.
It was registered to Air West Coast as ZK-VIR on 01-09-2006 and after resolving some tech problems entered service on 19-03-2007 on the Greymouth - Westport - Wellington run. Its last service was Wellington - Greymouth on 01-08-08. It departed Haupiri (inland from Greymouth) on 16-02-09 for Auckland and on to Rarotonga and Papeete the next day bound for Curacoa to become PJ-DVA with Divi Divi Air. Its ZK marks being cancelled on 23rd of April.

Crosswind Roundout (Flare)

Generally, the roundout can be made like a normal landing approach, but the application of a crosswind correction is continued as necessary to prevent drifting.

Since the airspeed decreases as the roundout progresses, the flight controls gradually become less effective. As a result, the crosswind correction being held will become inadequate. When using the wing-low method, it is necessary to gradually increase the deflection of the rudder and ailerons to maintain the proper amount of drift correction.

Do not level the wings; keep the upwind wing down throughout the roundout. If the wings are leveled, the airplane will begin drifting and the touchdown will occur while drifting. Remember, the primary objective is to land the airplane without subjecting it to any side loads that result from touching down while drifting.

Jetstream 41 ZK-JSM gone.

The last of our British Aerospace Jetstream 41's ZK-JSM , c/n 41052 , has been cancelled from the register. A product of early 1995 it first appeared with the test registration of G-4-052 to the manufacturer, British Aerospace PLC at Prestwick having its first flight on 10-03-1995.

An undercarriage retract at the start of its delivery flight from Prestwick on 07-04-95 saw its delivery departure delayed until 29-04-95 when it nipped across the Pond to become C-FTVN with Air Atlantic (1995) Ltd at Halifax, Nova Scotia.

It ferried into Nelson on 25-01-2002 to become ZK-JSM on 07-02-2002 with Origin Pacific Airways. It was re-listed to Honk Aviation of Auckland on 15-09-2006 and departed Nelson on 17-09-2006 for Auckland and then on to Tonga and NZ cancellation on 22-09-06 as it became A3-XRH with Peau Vava'u Airline. From November 2006 until February 2007 it was parked up at Ardmore during civil unrest in Tonga. It returned there only to have the airline go defunct in January of 2008. It returned to Auckland and Nelson for storage on 09-04-2008. It was re-registered back to ZK-JSM with Honk Aviation on 09-12-2008. A post storage test flight was carried out on 07-01-2009 with an acceptance flight on 03-04-2009.
Finally departed Neslon for Auckland and Norfolk Island on 04-04-09 and onward to Brisbane and Townsville the next day. Here it was repainted before moving onward to someplace in Africa.
Top pic shows it withdrawn at Nelson, minus prop, on 14-12-2005.
Pic below shows A3-XRH at Nelson on 20-05-2008 following its return from Tonga.

Adria interested in Niš service

Niš Constantine the Great Airport passenger terminal
Slovenia’s Adria Airways is interested in commencing services to Serbia’s third largest city, Niš. In order for the service to begin a new aviation agreement between the two countries must be made as currently it only allows the national carrier from each country to operate 1 destination in the other (Ljubljana for Jat and Priština for Adria). The new service could bring Niš Constantine Airport back to life as the airport is currently only served by Jat Airways with 2 weekly flights to Zurich.

However, Niš could be getting a major boost this year. Turkish companies such as Atlasjet, Pegasus Airlines and Sky Airlines are interested in commencing services and Jat is hoping of starting services from Niš to Vienna. Niš is Serbia’s third largest city but it cannot rely on wide scale passenger traffic. The city lacks foreign investment therefore limiting business travel. However, it is attractive to some carrier because of its extreme low costs (many airlines have been offered free handling fees for the first 6 months of operations) and its close proximity to the mountain resort of Kopaonik is an added plus. Other carriers which used to operate flights to Niš were Montenegro Airlines on a seasonal basis (from Tivat) although it has decided not to return this year and Thompsonfly which continues with winter charters to London and Sofia. The authorities believe that the airport’s future lies in cargo operations and plans have begun to develop the airport in a major cargo hub for South Eastern Europe. Niš and its airport were heavily damaged during the 1999 NATO bombing of Serbia while the airport was reopened in 2004 after its reconstruction was funded by the Norwegian Royal Family. Late last year the airport was cleared of all cassette bombs which were found in close proximity, undetonated since 1999. This work was carried out by Russian experts.

Taking off your Radio Controlled Jet

Okay I take it on me, my bad, I have been writing about all the things but the simple basic maneuver which is taking off your rc jet. Yes ofcourse take off is the first move anyone in the hobby of radio controlled flying hobby would do. Although it is the most basic and easy maneuver but still some of you will face some difficulty in taking off your rc airplane specially smooth take offs because one will require some practice in overcoming irregular take offs and becoming a consistent rc jet take offer. So no worries because this post is all about smooth, sleek under controlled take off doesn’t matter which model you are flying. See this step by step guide:

- As we know the basics of any take off that they are performed into the wind. You need to have a windsock to know the direction of wind. Although all major air fields have but you can take a hint from your hanky. Intensity of the wind is to be judged as well, too much of a wind can make the moves erroneous. You need to position your rc jet into the wind and also mark any land mark not of much height because you are going to make a turn above it after climbing a height.

- Positioning your remote controlled airplane is very important. Make sure that it is placed in the middle of the runway because sometimes rc airplanes go cut sides and go off the runway. Your rc aircraft is facing the wind and positioned between the runway.

- Some of the air fields have marked pilot positions, these are the spots from where you fly your rc airplane if you are using an airfield, get there, choose a nearby your rc plane.

- Better take offs are always about swift speed catching. You need to give smooth but full throttle in a short time so that air cuts the controls surfaces faster and give you edge in lifting your rc jet in the air.

- You will be required to use a little rudder here and there to keep your remote controlled aircraft in the middle of the runway and in a straight line so it can catch up speed faster. Use a small up elevator if you are flying a tail dragger, this will keep your rc plane to nose down.

- After seeing your rc jet gaining full speed, you need to pull back smoothly and gently, if you make it climb too steep, your rc airplane can catch a stall which can happen due to low altitude. Keeping it in a gradual climb and straight for a little while will give it stability. You may want to apply correction to bank by tapping the rudder or aileron stick. You will have to plan your height from where you want to take a turn over the land mark chosen earlier.

- After reaching the land mark location for the turn, reduce the throttle to half and level off. Take the turn in the direction you want by banking your rc jet or aircraft while maintaining the altitude so you don’t find your remote controlled plane ditching on the ground.

That’s it; you have made a very smooth take off. You deserve a pat, enjoy flying.


17,200 hours

Above is a shot of ZK-HUW taken at Greymouth on 10-03-1987 whilst with Heli-Corp. This was in the deer poaching days when helicopters had to carry large ID letters in a coloured circle.
I dug this out of the dreaded shoe box and added to this blog 28-04-09 & 1700hrs.

Below a pic taken 27-04-2009
In for servicing at Skysales in Christchurch is the Hughes 369D ZK-HUW , c/n 1280415D , from Greymouth. Built in December 1978 as N58273 it worked out of Marina Del Ray in California until moving down to NZ. It become ZK-HUW with C R Deaker at Te Anau on 16-05-1985 . First flight in NZ was at Christchurch on 29-05-1985. Ownership changed to Heli-Corp (NZ) Ltd at Greymouth from 22-05-1986. It has been on "The Coast" ever since, joining Chris Cowan of Coastwide Helicopters on 30-06-1988. It has now accumulated 17,200 flying hours.

Crosswind Approach And Landing

Many runways or landing areas are such that landings must be made while the wind is blowing across rather than parallel to the landing direction. All pilots should be prepared to cope with these situations when they arise. The same basic principles and factors involved in a normal approach and landing apply to a crosswind approach and landing; therefore, only the additional procedures required for correcting for wind drift are discussed here.

Crosswind landings are a little more difficult to perform than crosswind takeoffs, mainly due to different problems involved in maintaining accurate control of the airplane while its speed is decreasing rather than increasing as on takeoff.

There are two usual methods of accomplishing a crosswind approach and landing—the crab method and the wing-low (sideslip) method. Although the crab method may be easier for the pilot to maintain during final approach, it requires a high degree of judgment and timing in removing the crab immediately prior to touchdown. The wing-low method is recommended in most cases, although a combination of both methods may be used.

Charter wars

Atlasjet Belgrade service under question
With the Serbian national carrier, Jat Airways, on one side and 3 Turkish and 1 Egyptian carrier on the other a war has developed in order to gain licenses to perform charter services to and from Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport. Some Serbian travel agencies have made agreements with foreign carriers to commence services to Belgrade this summer however the Serbian National Association of Tourist Agencies (YUTA) and Jat Airways are strongly against the move. However, the Turkish and Egyptian authorities are equally as frustrated and some of Jat’s charter services (the rare sector in which Jat performs extremely well passenger wise) is under question.

YUTA believes that letting foreign charter carriers commence services to Serbia could be a move which will directly harm the national interests of the country and the national carrier. Although Jat does not decide which carrier is allowed to fly to Serbia it has joined YUTA in its pursuit to get rid of these airlines. In order for other carriers to fly to Serbia they need to be issued a license by the Serbian Civil Aviation Authority. The authority informs Jat of which airline would like to commence services to Serbia and Jat gives their opinion if these should go ahead or not. However, Jat’s decision is not binding and is simply in place to see what the national carrier thinks. The trouble is that the Turkish and Egyptian authorities are now angry at Serbia and will take away Jat’s charter license if their carriers are not allowed to commence services to Belgrade and Niš.

Nevertheless it seems that the issue has been resolved for now, at least when Jat is in question, as the airline’s charter flights to Cairo, Hurghada, Sharm el-Sheik and Antalya all departed on Sunday and arrived in Belgrade today.

The airlines which are interested to commence charter services to Serbia is the Egyptian Lotus Air which would fly to Belgrade from Marsa Alam from June 15 to October 29 and the Turkish charter companies Pegasus Airlines, Atlasjet and Sky Airlines which would connect Antalya to Belgrade via Niš.Jat’s charter services have been a big success since Montenegro Airlines ended charter operations from Belgrade in the summer of 2006. With practically a 100% share of the charter flights it would be difficult for Jat to lose it now, particularly when its struggling in the scheduled flights sector. The only charter carrier which has been issued with a license so far is the Tunisian Nouvelair from Monastir to Belgrade.

Crosswind Final Approach

The crab method is executed by establishing a heading (crab) toward the wind with the wings level so that the airplane's ground track remains aligned with the centerline of the runway. Crabbed approach.
This crab angle is maintained until just prior to touchdown, when the longitudinal axis of the airplane must be aligned with the runway to avoid sideward contact of the wheels with the runway. If a long final approach is being flown, the pilot may use the crab method until just before the roundout is started and then smoothly change to the wing-low method for the remainder of the landing.

The wing-low (sideslip) method will compensate for a crosswind from any angle, but more important, it enables the pilot to simultaneously keep the airplane's ground track and longitudinal axis aligned with the runway centerline throughout the final approach, roundout, touchdown, and after-landing roll. This prevents the airplane from touching down in a sideward motion and imposing damaging side loads on the landing gear.

To use the wing-low method, the pilot aligns the airplane's heading with the centerline of the runway, notes the rate and direction of drift, and then promptly applies drift correction by lowering the upwind wing. Sideslip approach.

The amount the wing must be lowered depends on the rate of drift. When the wing is lowered, the airplane will tend to turn in that direction. It is then necessary to simultaneously apply sufficient opposite rudder pressure to prevent the turn and keep the airplane's longitudinal axis aligned with the runway. In other words, the drift is controlled with aileron, and the heading with rudder. The airplane will now be sideslipping into the wind just enough that both the resultant flightpath and the ground track are aligned with the runway. If the crosswind diminishes, this crosswind correction is reduced accordingly, or the airplane will begin slipping away from the desired approach path. Crosswind approach and landing.

To correct for strong crosswind, the slip into the wind is increased by lowering the upwind wing a considerable amount. As a consequence, this will result in a greater tendency of the airplane to turn. Since turning is not desired, considerable opposite rudder must be applied to keep the airplane's longitudinal axis aligned with the runway. In some airplanes, there may not be sufficient rudder travel available to compensate for the strong turning tendency caused by the steep bank. If the required bank is such that full opposite rudder will not prevent a turn, the wind is too strong to safely land the airplane on that particular runway with those wind conditions. Since the airplane's capability will be exceeded, it is imperative that the landing be made on a more favorable runway either at that airport or at an alternate airport.

Flaps can and should be used during most approaches since they tend to have a stabilizing effect on the airplane. The degree to which flaps should be extended will vary with the airplane's handling characteristics, as well as the wind velocity.

MAT grounded!

End of MAT?
The national carrier of Macedonia has been grounded until further notice by the Macedonian Civil Aviation Authority. The aviation body accused MAT of putting its passengers in danger by not repairing the front wheel on its sole fleet member, the Boeing B737-500. MAT’s CEO denies the charges and accuses the aviation authority of trying to destroy the carrier. Problems started earlier this year when the Macedonian Aviation Authority demanded that the front wheel of the Boeing 737-500 be changed. It gave the carrier until April 24, 2009 to make the change otherwise it would ground the aircraft. Since the airline did not perform the needed changes the Macedonian Aviation Authority did not wish to extend the given deadline. The seizure of the aircraft has led MAT’s flights into disarray with the first causality being 150 passengers from Skopje hoping to fly to Vienna. The flight had been cancelled and passengers were rerouted to their destination using other airlines.

MAT’s management says that passengers were never in danger and that the airline’s pilots and technicians would never allow the aircraft to operate have passengers ever been in danger. Furthermore the carrier says the last time the Macedonian Civil Aviation Authority undertook a safety review of the airline they found no faults. MAT says that it has ordered the replacement part which will take a few days to arrive because “it cannot just arrive over night”, Kristevski said. The replacement will cost the airline 50.000 American dollars, a major figure for the cash strapped carrier. The latest turn in the MAT drama has led to the cancellation of all flights this weekend which included flights from Skopje to Zurich and Istanbul.

It is now uncertain what awaits MAT. The latest development can only intensify the takeover of the carrier, with Serbia’s Jat Airways expected to be the new owners. MAT's managment is hoping that once the replacement part arrives the carrier will be able to fly again. He accuses the Macedonian Civil Aviation Authority of double standards as they have issued the Turkish charter carrier Tarhan Tower Airlines with a license to fly from Macedonia even though the Turkish Civil Aviation authority revoked the airline’s license in 2007 and the airline has been bankrupt ever since.

MAT has now been left without any aircraft as its other fleet member, a CRJ900, has been stored in Ljubljana after MAT was unable to pay for its operations. According to a poll on this blog earlier this year 61% of those that voted believed that MAT will no longer be flying by the end of 2009.

More on the Kittyhawk ZK-VWC

Kittyhawk ZK-VWC continues its test flight programme and today (Anzac Day - 25 Apr) was particularly poignant, this being exactly 65 years since this aircraft came to grief in New Guinea. Relatives of the pilot involved in the accident were present at Ardmore for today's flight along with TV3. The news clip can be view here :

The aircraft has, since its first flight a few days ago, has been fitted with a 52 gallon drop tank.

Mike Condon photos

Ground Effect

Ground effect is a factor in every landing and every takeoff in fixed-wing airplanes. Ground effect can also be an important factor in go-arounds. If the go-around is made close to the ground, the airplane may be in the ground effect area. Pilots are often lulled into a sense of false security by the apparent "cushion of air" under the wings that initially assists in the transition from an approach descent to a climb. This "cushion of air," however, is imaginary. The apparent increase in airplane performance is, in fact, due to a reduction in induced drag in the ground effect area. It is "borrowed" performance that must be repaid when the airplane climbs out of the ground effect area. The pilot must factor in ground effect when initiating a go-around close to the ground. An attempt to climb prematurely may result in the airplane not being able to climb, or even maintain altitude at full power.

Common errors in the performance of go-arounds (rejected landings) are:

Failure to recognize a condition that warrants a
rejected landing.
Delay in initiating a go-round.
Failure to apply maximum allowable power in a timely manner.
Abrupt power application.
Improper pitch attitude.
Failure to configure the airplane appropriately.
Attempting to climb out of ground effect prematurely.
Failure to adequately compensate for torque/Pfactor.

Code shares in abundance

Spanair - Croatia Airlines' newest partner
Croatia Airlines is using its status as a regional Star Alliance member to form plenty of new code share agreements with other carriers in Europe this summer. This way the Croatian national carrier will provide better services for its passengers and will be able to profit from the code share agreements. Croatia Airlines will start code sharing cooperation with Spanair. This budget Spanish carrier has been a Star Alliance member since 2003. The new code share will be made possible with the inauguration of new, 3 weekly flights, from Zagreb to Barcelona starting June 9. Croatia Airlines is offering in code share, Spanair flights from Barcelona to domestic destinations within Spain. These are Alicante, Bilbao, Granada, Ibiza, Jerez, La Coruna, Madrid, Malaga, Menorca, Palma de Mallorca, Santiago de Compostela, Sevilla and Vigo. The code share flight from Zagreb to Madrid via Barcelona in cooperation with Spanair will be in direct competition with the new nonstop Zagreb – Madrid service operated by the Spanish national carrier from July 4. Still within the Iberian Peninsula, Croatia Airlines has signed a new agreement with the Portuguese national carrier TAP. Via Barcelona, Croatian travellers will be able to fly on Croatia Airlines code share flight, operated by TAP, to Porto. The two carriers already code share on the TAP flights to Lisbon via Bologna from Zagreb.

For those interested, Croatia Airlines has been a regional Star Alliance member since 2004, with its membership sponsored by the German giant Lufthansa.

SUN 'n FUN 2009!

Great (and getting hot!) weather and a good, if not record-breaking, turnout mark the beginning of the EAA Sun 'n Fun flyin.
The exhibitor turnout is likewise somewhat down, although Dan Johnson's LSA Mall at the entrance is filled with aircraft and lots of serious interest from potential buyers, as in previous shows.
I've talked with many LSA companies here who say there are more serious buyers, fewer "tire-kickers".
Some LSA makers like Flight Design have racked up aircraft sales already. Others are still hoping to do business: it depends on who you talk to on whether the show is better or worse than expected. Expectations due to the economic times were not high to begin with, so it's too early to put a number on the overall picture.
Lots of new developments though, with more details to come here, such as:
* a new electric/Rotax hybrid engine that will boost economy and provide electric power safety backup in emergencies, announced at AERO Friedrichshafen
* Evektor passes LAMA audit
* Legend Cub offers sub-$100,000 "Aeronomic Stimulus" SLSA, and new Garmin 696 installation
* EAA presents Earth Day celebration with electric LSA prototype in center of the LSA exhibitors in the southeast display mall.
And lots more to come.

Configuration:Intentional Slips

In cleaning up the airplane during the go-around, the pilot should be concerned first with flaps and secondly with the landing gear (if retractable). When the decision is made to perform a go-around, takeoff power should be applied immediately and the pitch attitude changed so as to slow or stop the descent. After the descent has been stopped, the landing flaps may be partially retracted or placed in the takeoff position as recommended by the manufacturer.

Go-around procedure.Caution must be used, however, in retracting the flaps. Depending on the airplane's altitude and airspeed, it may be wise to retract the flaps intermittently in small increments to allow time for the airplane to accelerate progressively as they are being raised. A sudden and complete retraction of the flaps could cause a loss of lift resulting in the airplane settling into the ground.

Unless otherwise specified in the AFM/POH, it is generally recommended that the flaps be retracted (at least partially) before retracting the landing gear—for two reasons. First, on most airplanes full flaps produce more drag than the landing gear; and second, in case the airplane should inadvertently touch down as the go-around is initiated, it is most desirable to have the landing gear in the down-and-locked position. After a positive rate of climb is established, the landing gear can be retracted.

When takeoff power is applied, it will usually be necessary to hold considerable pressure on the controls to maintain straight flight and a safe climb attitude. Since the airplane has been trimmed for the approach (a low
power and low airspeed condition), application of maximum allowable power will require considerable control pressure to maintain a climb pitch attitude. The addition of power will tend to raise the airplane's nose suddenly and veer to the left. Forward elevator pressure must be anticipated and applied to hold the nose in a safe climb attitude. Right rudder pressure must be increased to counteract torque and P-factor, and to keep the nose straight. The airplane must be held in the proper flight attitude regardless of the amount of control pressure that is required. Trim should be used to relieve adverse control pressures and assist the pilot in maintaining a proper pitch attitude. On airplanes that produce high control pressures when using maximum power on go-arounds, pilots should use caution when reaching for the flap handle. Airplane control may become critical during this high workload phase.

The landing gear should be retracted only after the initial or rough trim has been accomplished and when it is certain the airplane will remain airborne. During the initial part of an extremely low go-around, the airplane may settle onto the runway and bounce. This situation is not particularly dangerous if the airplane is kept straight and a constant, safe pitch attitude is maintained. The airplane will be approaching safe flying speed rapidly and the advanced power will cushion any secondary touchdown.

If the pitch attitude is increased excessively in an effort to keep the airplane from contacting the runway, it may cause the airplane to stall. This would be especially likely if no trim correction is made and the flaps remain fully extended. The pilot should not attempt to retract the landing gear until after a rough trim is accomplished and a positive rate of climb is established.

Delta Yankee Kermit and a Cutey

Whilst waiting to line up today at Rangiora, these two aircraft crossed my bows.
Above is the Dave Mitchell Rans S6ES Coyote 11 ZK-DYM c/n 4051657 , known as "Kermit" and using the callsign "Delta Yankee Kermit" (locally).
I do like a bit of individuality and admit that I use "fox" instead of the full "Foxtrot".
Then an unusual event. This colourful Eurocopter EC 120B from Garden City Helicopters, ZK-IQT , c/n 1370 , arrived and did an overhead rejoin and full curcuit, instead of the more common zoom, hover & dump down at the fuel pump. Well done ! This has been with Garden City since being imported in May of 2005.

One & the same. ZK-JKZ now ZK-JHU

Above we have a photo taken at Rangiora on 21-10-2007 of Airborne Windsports Edge 582 ZK-JKZ with a listed c/n of "W2 135". It was first registered to Ian Clark of Auckland on 15-12-1999, then to G & M Gross at Whangarei on 02-02-2001. By 30-04-2004 it was with Liam Naden initially of Paihia and later of North Canterbury. By October 2006 it had accumulated about 400 h our flying time. Its registration is shown as being revoked on 23-05-2007.
I have a report that it was damaged when a trailer which it was on overturned.
Above shows it today at Rangiora now listed as ZK-JHU to Doug Anderson and with its correct c/n of 582-411B. The initial c/n used was in fact its the serial number of its Wizzard 11 wing. Originally it had a Brolga prop but now sports a locally produced Brent Thompson propeller which still requires a little tweeking.
The reason for having the new registration on the fuselage pod is that the wing fabric has had a treatment which prevents the transfers from adhering.

New flights as profits soar

Will new flights lead to more passangers?
Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport has been impacted by the global financial crisis as the number of passengers that have passed through the airport have declined however profits are greatly on the rise. While airports in the region are reporting significant financial losses, in particular Podgorica and some airports in Croatia, Belgrade made a profit of 387 million Dinars (3.2 million Euros) in the first quarter of 2009, which is 2.5 times more than the same period last year. In 2008 the airport made a profit of 14.161.231 Euros. The airport management emphasises this as a great success as passenger numbers have been reduced. The airport authorities say the result has been achieved by cost cutting measures the management has implemented. However, others would state another reason. The airport has been heavily criticised for the extremely high tax passengers have to pay. The airport’s resident, Jat Airways, has particularly criticised the 16.5 Euro airport tax its passengers have to pay.

Serbia’s largest airport has also reported that there will be an influx of new services this summer. Tunisian charter carrier Nouvelair will begin services to Belgrade from its hub in Monastir. Flights will operate twice per week which will add significant competition for the two carriers already operating on this line. There are a total of 11 weekly flights from Belgrade to Monastir with Jat Airways operating 7 flights and Tunisair operating the other 4. The new service will lead to 13 flights per week between the two cities. Meanwhile Turkish Airlines will increase its flights from 5 weekly to daily by the end of May, from Istanbul. The low-cost Norwegian Air Shuttle will introduce new services to Stockholm from May 23 while LOT Polish Airlines will begin with 4 weekly flights to Warsaw which will provide excellent short connection times for passengers transiting to New York, Chicago and Toronto. Jat will commence services to Abu Dhabi in May with flights operating twice per week.


Helicopters Otago BK117 ZK-HJK was under going maintenance flights at Ardmore 23Apr. This is the helicopter involved in the powerline survey as mentioned in an earlier blog (not the R44 as depicted).

Photographed 1 minute after its exit from the paint shop at Ardmore is Hawkes Bay based Eurocopter AS350 B3 ZK-IJF. This flingwing was added to the register in late February.

Lentokoneen aerodynaaminen suunnittelu -luento 5.5.2009 SIL-luokka klo 17

Malmin ilmailukerho (MIK) jarjestaa Malmilla SIL-luokassa 5.5.2009 aiheena lentokoneen aerodynaaminen suunnittelu. Luennoitsijana Juha Karjalainen TKK:lta. Blogin lukijat ovat lampimasti tervetulleita Malmin Ilmailukerhon jasenten lisaksi. Kieli: suomi. Tilaisuuteen on vapaa paasy.

In English: There is a lecture about aerodynamics arranged at Malmi SIL class 5th May 2009. The language in the lecture is Finnish and the lecturer is going to be Juha Karjalainen from Helsinki University of Technology.

Attitude:Intentional Slips

Attitude is always critical when close to the ground, and when power is added, a deliberate effort on the part of the pilot will be required to keep the nose from pitching up prematurely. The airplane executing a go-around must be maintained in an attitude that permits a buildup of airspeed well beyond the stall point before any effort is made to gain altitude, or to execute a turn. Raising the nose too early may produce a stall from which the airplane could not be recovered if the go-around is performed at a low altitude.

A concern for quickly regaining altitude during a go-around produces a natural tendency to pull the nose up. The pilot executing a go-around must accept the fact that an airplane will not climb until it can fly, and it will not fly below stall speed. In some circumstances, it may be desirable to lower the nose briefly to gain airspeed. As soon as the appropriate climb airspeed and pitch attitude are attained, the pilot should "rough trim" the airplane to relieve any adverse control pressures. Later, more precise trim adjustments can be made when flight conditions have stabilized.

ZK-IHC with Garden City Helicopters.

ZK-IHC on a "copter south" arrival at Garden City Helicopters depot today.
Robinson R22 Beta 11 , c/n 4317 , was first noted at Skysales Aviation (NZ) Ltd unmarked on 01-07-2008. It has remained as a stock helicopter until recently acquired by Garden City Helicopters based on the other side (eastern) of Christchurch Airport.

No Easter = no passengers

Jat Airways cabin crew search for passengers
Passenger numbers have continued to slide for Serbia’s national carrier Jat Airways with the airline reporting a 23% drop in passengers in the month of March when compared to last year. Jat transported a total of 63.313 passengers, 179 tonnes of cargo and 57 tonnes of mail. The only sector improving this March compared to last is the amount of mail transported as it increased by 24% while cargo fell by 28%. A big disappointment for the airline is the cabin occupancy index which only reached 50%, 6% less than last March. Passengers travelling towards Jat’s most important market, Montenegro, declined by a large 53%. The number of charters operated fell by 43% but passengers on charter services increased by 24%. Jat can boast that it has significantly improved its on-time arrivals and departures to 83% (10% more than last March), although the majority of late departures were due to busy airports.

The main reason the carrier saw such large declines in most sectors is because of the absence of Easter. Last year Easter was in March which usually sees increased passenger activity. This year however the Easter holiday fell into the month of April. Jat will hope that with Easter and the launch of its popular Belgrade – Pula service it will see small declines in passenger numbers this April, if not even a modest rise in passengers.

Kittyhawk takes flight for the first time in 65 years!

Vintage Wings of Canada P40 Kittyhawk ZK-VWC took to the air at Ardmore 23Apr09 for the first time since 25 April 1944, which is when it made a forced landing in New Guinea.

The aircraft was test flown by Frank Parker, experienced Kittyhawk handler. The test flight programme will be fairly brief with the aircraft expected to depart NZ at the beginning of May for its new home.

Colin Hunter was on hand to capture this historic moment!

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